For the WGS84 ellipsoid, that's respectively: Earth's circumference equals the perimeter length. Earth, as we know now, is an oblate spheroid, as shown in the above figure. Semi-minor axis b = 6356752.3142 meters. B 01 Earths equatorial radius63781. After completing his doctoral studies, he decided to start "ScienceOxygen" as a way to share his passion for science with others and to provide an accessible and engaging resource for those interested in learning about the latest scientific discoveries. Thus the curvature found this way is smaller than the curvature of a circle of constant latitude, except at the equator. d What is the biggest problem with wind turbines? This table summarizes the accepted values of the Earth's radius. Eratosthenes methods result in a formula that would look like this: 39,350 = 2 x 3.14 x r, or 6,267 kilometers. Make sure both sticks are perpendicular to the earth and that the same length of stick protrudes from the ground. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Performance". Its volume is 803.84 cubic meters. The first and second radii of curvature correspond, respectively, to the Earth's meridional and prime-vertical radii of curvature. The total mass of all the asteroids combined is less than that of Earth's Moon. View a sample solution. f Solving for x reveals the circumference to be. Estimates of the accuracy of Eratosthenes's measurement range from 0.5% to 17%. What you need is to convert a meter into degrees since long/lat is a polar coordinate system.With the circumference of Earth being 40,075 km, you get 0.00000898315 deg/m which you need to multiply with the size of the object (1 m) to get the degrees which you have to add to your coordinate to get a point which intersects with the radius of . Earth radius Conversion conversion table Earth radius to Meters Conversion Table Meters [ m ] What is the radius of the earth? Does Bohrs model explain radius of an orbit? How many meters is the earth? which differs from the exact result by less than 1m (4105in); the mean of the two axes. Through derivation, we find a logical connection between a natural phenomenon and a mathematical description of that phenomenon. {\displaystyle K=\kappa _{1}\,\kappa _{2}={\frac {\det \,B}{\det \,A}}} Obviously, nobody is claiming how big Earth has really altered. Nowadays there are better ellipsoids when it comes to supplying a much better fit to mean ocean level compared to WGS84 ellipsoid. nasa.gov. What is the radius of Earth in exponential form? ) Now we know 2 things- 1. The dashed line designates the radius to one point on the surface. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. Though he did not have instant communications as we do now, he was able to determine the angle of the suns rays in Alexandria at the same time, which was about 7.2 degrees. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Analytics". If no sub- or superscripts appear on this page - for example, if the "Mass" is given in units of "(1024 kg)" - you may want to check the notes on the sub- and superscripts. It has a diameter of 12,756.3 km (Scientific notation: 1.2756 x 10e4) and a radius of 56,378.15 km (Scientific notation: 5.6378 x 10e4 km.) What is the permiter of the Earth? So escape velocity of the planet will be 22.4 km/sec Earth, on the other hand, isn't quite a sphere. The planet bulges at the equator as a result of its rotation. = Both of these values are very close to the accepted modern values for the Earths circumference and radius, 40,070 km and 6378 km respectively, which have since been measured by orbiting spacecraft. A cylinder has a radius of 8 meters. Have your partner do the same in her location. Definitions and Formulas. However, Earth is not quite a sphere. What is the radius of Earth in gravitation? (e) For that Earth 1/q 289, that is near to the measured inverse flattening 1/f 298. (The notation is defined such that it can be easily generalized for other planets; e.g., What is the fluid speed in a fire hose with a 9.00 cm diameter carrying 80.0 l of water per second? Its nice to determine that measurements taken by a lot of groups, sometimes in under ideal conditions, came so near to the right answer. A) 4.5 x 10-7 B) 4.5 x 107 C) 45 x 10-6 D) 45 x 106 nasa.gov. Earth is the third planet from the sun. Earth's surface area is an estimated 510 km2, and about 29% of the area is land while the other 71% consists of water. These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc. Its "up" direction there is shown with a black segment: it is, by definition, perpendicular to the ellipse at that point. F It is the smallest planet in the Solar System, with an equatorial radius of 2,439.7 km. Exponential or Scientific Notation: It is easier to write very large numbers such as 100,000,000 as 10 8 (1 followed by 8 0s). T mpanderla95. The planet's rotation causes it to bulge at the equator. state. What happens to the dry ice at room pressure and temperature? The circumference of the Earth depends on how it is measured. , For Earth, the volumetric radius equals 6,371. These values correspond to the zero Earth tide convention. The geocentric radius is the distance from the Earth's center to a point on the spheroid surface at geodetic latitude : where a and b are, respectively, the equatorial radius and the polar radius. How do you find the acceleration of a system? Escape velocity = = 22.4 km/sec. The radius of earth, is the distance from the centre of the Earth to a point on or near its surface, and it ranges from nearly 6,378 km to nearly 6,357 km, dhanyaranjan Published On January 28th, 2022 Table of Contents Radius of Earth in Physics The symbol R? 137 km (3963. where. The Earth's meridional radius of curvature at the equator equals the meridian's semi-latus rectum: The Earth's prime-vertical radius of curvature at the equator equals the equatorial radius, N = a. Asteroids range in size from Vesta - the largest at about 329 miles (530 kilometers) in diameter - to bodies that are less than 33 feet (10 meters) across. Explanation: The Earth's radius (r) is 6371 km or 3959 miles, based on numbers from Wikipedia, which gives a circumference (c) of c = 2 * * r = 40 030 km We wish to find the height (h) which is the drop in curvature over the distance (d) Using the circumference we find that 1 kilometer has the angle 360 / 40 030 km = 0.009. 6378 X 2 = 12 756 km. Radius refers to a line that connects to the centre point of a circle to any point on its outside layer. Video advice: How Eratosthenes discovered the radius of the earth. N Find the level of Earth in cubic meters. Earth's polar radius is 3950 miles (Diameter = 7900 miles). The magnitude of the gravitational force between earth and an object is given by the formula. Facts about the earth Since the earth is a sphere, we can measure its diameter and radius. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. Circumference of Earth is the length or the distance around the Earth. The equatorial radius of Earth is actually 6,378.1 kilometers. where may be the angular frequency, G may be the gravitational constant, and M may be the mass from the planet. See the formula used in an example where we are given the diameter of the sphere. Step 3 of 5. Record the measurements. . Note that the dimensions of h, R and d must be . For Eratosthenes, at midday on the summer solstice where the suns angle was directly overhead, the angle was zero. The planet's rotation causes it to bulge at the equator. Its better to have a reference ellipsoid that is constant over time than it is to have an ever improving best fit ellipsoid. 756 mi) on average. to the plane tangent at What is the number in scientific notation? [clarification needed]. N Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "a9a1dd2ca0d2b09469aaaff6808fc4c3" );document.getElementById("ae49f29f56").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Start your trial now! These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. ), In geophysics, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) defines the Earth's arithmetic mean radius (denoted R1) to be[2], The factor of two accounts for the biaxial symmetry in Earth's spheroid, a specialization of triaxial ellipsoid. For a perfect sphere without any mountains, the distance d from a transmitting antenna to the horizon or the line of sight, or radio horizon, can be calculated from the Pythagorean theorem (see the picture above):. Well, the Moon is not always the same distance away from Earth. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. This measurement also introduces another fun source of error that actually comes from the motion of Earth and other similar planetary bodies in the solar system. Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features. In scientific notation, the radius of the earth in meters is equal to 6.37106 meters or approximately 6.4106 meters, and 6378100 or approximately 6370000 in standard form. The value of the radius is completely dependent upon the latitude in the case of an ellipsoid model, and nearly so on the geoid. It was there that he first had the idea to create a resource for physics enthusiasts of all levels to learn about and discuss the latest developments in the field. The expedition found that Newton's conjecture was correct:[30] the Earth is flattened at the poles due to rotation's centrifugal force. The distance between Syene and Alexandria is 787 kilometers, Eratosthenes used the ancient Greek measurement of stadia, but his calculations use the proportionality of angles between two locations, so any system of measurement will work. about 6,367.445km (3,956.547mi), can also be used. George Jackson is the founder and lead contributor of Physics Network, a popular blog dedicated to exploring the fascinating world of physics. Calculating Earths Volume Averaging these two numbers yields a mean radius of 6,371.0 kilometers (3,958.7 miles), which in turn yields an approximate value for the volume of the Earth of 1.08 quadrillion cubic kilometers (259 trillion cubic miles). The radius of the earth's orbit is 45,000,000 meters. When the Moon is the farthest away, it's 252,088 miles away. The cookies is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Necessary". This value is between 6,378 km, particularly around the equator and about 6,357 km at the poles. You can do this, too, by using his method. It is the only planet in our solar system that sustains life and it is the planet that we can call our own. [13], The authalic radius Given local and transient influences on surface height, the values defined below are based on a "general purpose" model, refined as globally precisely as possible within 5m (16ft) of reference ellipsoid height, and to within 100m (330ft) of mean sea level (neglecting geoid height). "The Earth's mass is about 5.98 10 24 kg". 191 mi) at the equator. which differs from the exact result by less than 1m (4105in); the mean of the two axes. A consequence is that a distance to the true horizon at the equator is slightly shorter in the northsouth direction than in the eastwest direction. The circumference of the Earth can be calculated using the formula, Circumference = 2 R or D, where R is the radius of Earth and D is the diameter. w , The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Performance". m. In 1993 the WGS84 governing committee voted, with one exception, to retain the 1984 defining values, despite improvements to those defining values. This is roughly 6,371 kilometers (km) or 3,960 statute miles. By knowing the Equatorial diameter or the polar diameter of the Earth, the circumference can be found. Its surface gravity is 274 m/s 2 or 28.0 times that of the Earth. {\displaystyle {\frac {\partial r}{\partial \varphi }}} {\displaystyle {\mathcal {R}}_{\mathrm {pE} }^{\mathrm {N} }} are tangents to the surface. Similarly very small numbers are written using negative exponents, e. The very first printed mention of Earths size made an appearance around 350BC, when Aristotle reported in the book Around the Heavens(18) that mathematicians had suspected the circumference of the world to become 400,000 stadia. . 6.371 10 6 m . Our Planet radius is really a unit of distance utilized in astronomy and geology. [13], Earth's authalic radius (meaning "equal area") is the radius of a hypothetical perfect sphere that has the same surface area as the reference ellipsoid. And we divide that by Pi times 9.00 centimeters written as meters so centi is prefix meaning ten times minus two and we square that diameter. Use the protractor to measure the angle where the string meets the stick at the top. The extrema geocentric radii on the ellipsoid coincide with the equatorial and polar radii. It is a common misconception that Terra is the internationally-recognized scientific name of the planet, but in reality Earth does not have an official international name. Skip to main content. , Earth's polar radius is 3,950 miles (6,356 km) a difference of 13 miles (22 km). 1 The following equation estimates the ellipsoid radius ( r s ) using flattening ( f ) , geocentric latitude ( s ) , and equatorial radius ( R ) : r s = R 2 1 + [ 1 / ( 1 f ) 2 1 ] sin 2 s . Record the distance between your location and your partners location. In 200 B.C. The structure of the Earths upper mantle can be derived from seismic waves. {\displaystyle {\mathcal {R}}_{\mathrm {pJ} }^{\mathrm {N} }} Tack one end of a piece of string to the top of the stick. What is the scientific name for Earth? As satellite remote sensing and especially the Global Positioning System gained importance, true global models were developed which, while not as accurate for regional work, best approximate the Earth as a whole. Drive one of the meter sticks into the ground in your location in a sunny spot. It does not store any personal data. Regardless of the model, any radius falls between the polar minimum of about 6,357km and the equatorial maximum of about 6,378km (3,950 to 3,963mi). r [2] All three values are about 6,371 kilometres (3,959mi). You need to ask yourself questions and then do problems to answer those questions. How many miles is a meter in scientific notation? [e] For the Earth .mw-parser-output .sfrac{white-space:nowrap}.mw-parser-output .sfrac.tion,.mw-parser-output .sfrac .tion{display:inline-block;vertical-align:-0.5em;font-size:85%;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output .sfrac .num,.mw-parser-output .sfrac .den{display:block;line-height:1em;margin:0 0.1em}.mw-parser-output .sfrac .den{border-top:1px solid}.mw-parser-output .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px}1/q 289, which is close to the measured inverse flattening 1/f 298.257. {\displaystyle {\mathcal {R}}_{\mathrm {eE} }^{\mathrm {N} }} This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The Earth's azimuthal radius of curvature, along an Earth normal section at an azimuth (measured clockwise from north) and at latitude , is derived from Euler's curvature formula as follows:[12]:97. Each of the models in common use involve some notion of the geometric radius. The radius is more like 6,371 kilometers at the north and south poles. Your email address will not be published. Her latest book, "A Travel for Taste: Germany," was published in 2015. {\displaystyle R_{E}} [27] However, the 1492 enactment of that voyage brought his fleet to the Americas. N A model of a helicopter rotor has four blades, each of length 3.4 mm from the central shaft to the blade tip. N Another global radius is the Earth's rectifying radius, giving a sphere with circumference equal to the perimeter of the ellipse described by any polar cross section of the ellipsoid. Earths Equatorial Radius to Meter Conversion Table, How to Convert Earths Equatorial Radius to Meter, Convert Earths Equatorial Radius to Other Length Units. As , EL NORTE is a melodrama divided into three acts. Physics, 22. If we were to plot this it would show (setting, G = M = m = R = 1, and including force direction): A simple spring oscillator To understand what this means we'll look at a simple spring oscillator. The bulge have been decreasing, consider 1998 the bulge has elevated, possibly because of redistribution of sea mass via currents. Of course, no one is claiming the size of Earth has actually changed. The radius of Earth at the equator is 3,963 miles (6,378 kilometers), according to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. \text {Circumference} = 39,350 \text {\ kilometers} Circumference = 39,350 kilometers. Initially, the idea of a reference ellipsoid was an ellipsoid that best approximated mean ocean level. The distance between Syene and Alexandria is 787 kilometers. Acceleration due to gravity is a vector, which means it has both a magnitudeand a direction. Performance cookies are used to understand and analyze the key performance indexes of the website which helps in delivering a better user experience for the visitors. Thus, the radius of the earth in meters in scientific notation is 6.371106m. Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features. The radius of Earth at the equator is 3,963 miles (6,378 kilometers), according to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Also, explore tools to convert Earths equatorial radius or meter to other length units or learn more about length conversions. This topographical average is 6,371.230km (3,958.899mi) with uncertainty of 10m (33ft).[16]. b : the third and usually largest vein of an insect's wing. The polar circumference equals Cp=4mp, four times the quarter meridian mp=aE(e), where the polar radius b enters via the eccentricity, e=(1b2/a2)0.5; see Ellipse#Circumference for details. Where R is the radius of the Earth. The standard English name of the planet, including in science, is Earth. . Derivation means the action of obtaining something from a source or origin. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. Using the parameters from WGS84 ellipsoid of revolution, a = 6,378.137 km and b = 6,356.7523142km, V = 1.083211012km3 (2.59881011cumi). The cases below considers Earth's topography, above or below a reference ellipsoid. How do you find the radius of the earth from latitude? The earth rotates once every 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.09053 seconds, called the sidereal period, and its circumference is roughly 40,075 kilometers. How do you find the radius of a planet in physics? What is the radius of the parallel of latitude? First week only $6.99! Compute the radius of the Earth using the formula C (circumference) = 2 x pi x r (radius). The answer would be 695 500 000 m. Wiki User. 5.98 10 24 kg. Where K is the Gaussian curvature, a) The radius of the earth is 4000 miles. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other. Instant free online tool for Earths equatorial radius to meter conversion or vice versa. How do we measure the diameter of the Earth? is normal to the surface at The acceleration due to gravity at the surface of Earthis represented by the letter g. Circumference of the Earth in Meters The mathematical expressions above apply over the top of ellipsoid. = All other parallels of latitude are small circles, each having a radius smaller than that of the earth, i.e. The radius of the earth is 6371 km. A Just how much is really a trillion in scientific notation? 71% of Earths surface is water. The cookie is set by GDPR cookie consent to record the user consent for the cookies in the category "Functional". Sun: radius = 696,000 kilometers, > 100 occasions bigger. The first published reference to the Earths size appeared around 350BC, when Aristotle reported in his book On the Heavens(18) that mathematicians had guessed the circumference of the Earth to be 400,000 stadia. (clarification needed). George has always been passionate about physics and its ability to explain the fundamental workings of the universe. That's between 28 and 29 Earths. [Mass of the earth is 6 x 1024 kg and radius of the earth is 6.4 x 106 m]. E 0008km (3,958. What is the Radius and Diameter of a Circle? (C = 2r) With this information, Eratosthenes inferred that the Earths radius was 6366 km. Surveyors today use a variety of instruments and calculations to determine the size of the Earth and collect other relevant data. Venus is included with a thick, quickly spinning atmosphere, developing a scorched world with temperatures hot enough to melt lead along with a surface pressure 90 occasions those of Earth. The nominal radius serves as a unit of length for astronomy. However, other factors such as the rotation of the Earth also contribute to the net acceleration. We invite readers to visit us daily, explore topics of interest, and gain new perspectives along the way. Because the Earth isnt perfectly spherical but instead an oblate spheroid, our planet radius is larger in the equator than in the rods. The Earth's mean radius of curvature at latitude is:[12]:97. e You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Example 2. In physics, it is established that the acceleration due togravity, g (in meters/sec 2), at a height h meters abovesea level is given by g(h)= 3.99 *10 14 (6.374* 10 6 + h) 2 where 6.374 * 10 6 isthe radius of the Earth in meters. Our descriptions of Earth's surface must be simpler than reality in order to be tractable. {\displaystyle e} {\displaystyle r} = If one point had appeared due east of the other, one finds the approximate curvature in the eastwest direction. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. => When Wi-Fi is available location accuracy is usually between 20 - 50 meters. Scholars have interpreted Aristotle's figure to be anywhere from highly accurate[20] to almost double the true value. Learn what is circumference of a sphere, how to calculate the circumference of the Earth with the help of solved examples. Eratosthenes was born around 276 B.C., which is now Shahhat, Libya. Mass of planet M = 8 x mass of earth = 8 x 6 x 10 24 kg. Q. The radius of Earth at the equator is 3,963 miles (6,378 kilometers), according to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. K So, for him the following relationship between objects will apply: 7.2 / 360 = 787 / x. The Bohr model of the atom predicted the radius of the lowest-energy electron orbit. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. arrow_forward. This calculated value became a defining value in 1993. Measuring the Circumference of the Earth. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. It is a physical constant which represents the most probable distance between the electron and the nucleus in a hydrogen atom in its ground state. Each pair measured the position from the sun, in the same manner the Greek philosopher Eratosthenes exceeded 2000 years back in Alexandria, Egyptby evaluating the size of an item to the size of its shadow, measured at local noon. {\displaystyle r=[r^{1},r^{2},r^{3}]^{T}=[x,y,z]^{T}} (b) Repeat part (a) with the sun in place of the earth. In the modern age, satellites often provide the most accurate and current information through global imaging. Andrew Blum gives some tips that could students in the high-school class in Clinton, Mississippi because they focus on the Eratosthenes project. Refer to the WGS-84 ellipsoid if a more precise value for its polar radius is needed. Ans. earthRadius Strictly speaking, spheres are the only solids to have radii, but broader uses of the term radius are common in many fields, including those dealing with models of Earth. While specific values differ, the concepts in this article generalize to any major planet. Geodetic ellipsoids are better suited to regional idiosyncrasies of the geoid. Write it in scientific notation. => When indoor location is available, the accuracy range can be as small as 5 meters. r Also a photographer, she records adventures by camera, combining photos with journals in her blogs. Although the precise strength of Earth's gravity varies depending on location, the nominal "average" value at the Earth's surface, known as standard gravity is, by definition, 9.80665 m/s 2 (32.1737 ft/s 2 ). The average light travel time to the earth is 8.3 minutes. r NASA Telescope Takes 12-Year Time-Lapse Movie of Entire Sky. Hence 1km=10001000m=10m 6. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously. In this state, it would have approximately the same mass as it has now, but its radius would be equal to the radius of the Earth. That's almost 32 Earths. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. The cookie is set by the GDPR Cookie Consent plugin and is used to store whether or not user has consented to the use of cookies. The first, titled Arturo Xuncax, is set in an Indian village in Guatemala. , Now that the radius of orbit has been found, the height above the earth can be calculated. Definition of radius 1 : a line segment extending from the center of a circle or sphere to the circumference or bounding surface. Point on the ellipsoid surface can be defined by the parametric curve equation. This astronomical observation was confirmed by general observations made at sea. 752 km (3949. Since pi is an infinite number, the calculations in Step 6 will be more accurate. , and because There are two types of crust; oceanic and continental. Solving for x reveals the circumference to be. We know that the acceleration due to gravity is equal to 9.8 m/s2, the Gravitational constant (G) is 6.673 1011 Nm2/kg2, the radius of the Earth is 6.37 106 m, and mass cancels out. What is the number in scientific notation? = The IUGG denotes the volumetric radius as R3. The mathematical expressions above apply over the surface of the ellipsoid. The WGS84 ellipsoid can be used worldwide (such as the ridiculously over-precise flattening value). Mathematically, Earth is a spheroid. What is velocity of bullet in the barrel? Has got the radius of Earth mysteriously grown by about 3%? {\displaystyle F=f=0} When it is measured around the equator, it is40,075 km (approximately, 24,901 miles), whereas, if it measured from the north pole to the south pole it is40,008 km (approximately, 24,860 miles). The radius of orbit indicates the distance that the satellite is from the center of the earth. The red dot at the lower left corner is its center. The geoid height variation is under 110m (360ft) on Earth. Asked By: Lena Frontelo | Last Updated: 18th May, 2020, Earth is the third planet from the sun. First of NASA's SunRISE SmallSats Rolls Off Production Line. The various radii derived here use the notation and dimensions noted above for the Earth as derived from the WGS-84 ellipsoid;[6] namely. This equation for acceleration can , Dry ice is the name for carbon dioxide in its solid state. Like a torus, the curvature at a point will be greatest (tightest) in one direction (northsouth on Earth) and smallest (flattest) perpendicularly (eastwest). Hence, we create models to approximate characteristics of Earths surface, generally relying on the simplest model that suits the need. Now we know 1km=1000m 5. Answer: Starter The radius of the moon is 1,737,000 meters. and Earth radius is the distance from Earth's center to its surface, about 6,371 km (3,959 mi). The recent Juno mission launched with the goal of examining Jupiters composition and underlying structure, the wikipedia article on the Juno spacecraft provides an a great overview of this type of process. The Magellan expedition (15191522), which was the first circumnavigation of the World, soundly demonstrated the sphericity of the Earth,[28] and affirmed the original measurement of 40,000km (25,000mi) by Eratosthenes. Make sure both sticks are perpendicular to the Earth and that the same length of stick protrudes from the ground. Whether you need help solving quadratic equations, inspiration for the upcoming science fair or the latest update on a major storm, Sciencing is here to help. 64miles, whereas, whether it ismeasured round the rods, it isapproximately 24,806 miles. The geoid height can change abruptly due to earthquakes (such as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake) or reduction in ice masses (such as Greenland).[5]. Video advice: How We Calculated the Radius of Earth. , The Earths equatorial radius to meter (m) conversion table and conversion steps are also listed.

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